Packaging & Bottling
For drum storage, Florida Chemical Company stores products in phenolic-lined metal containers. Using unlined steel drums is not recommended, because the natural moisture content in d-Limonene can lead to corrosion and rust.
The majority of retail products that contain d-Limonene are packaged in polymer based containers. Most plastics will react adversely if in contact with d-Limonene for extended periods of time. Eventually, the sides of the package will collapse inward (known as paneling). While this does not affect the integrity of the package, paneling does make the package unacceptable in appearance for retail display. The d-Limonene may also migrate through untreated plastic and cause adhesive labels to peel off.
Florida Chemical recommends the use of fluorinated plastic containers or PET for retail packaging. Fluorinated plastic containers resist paneling and are impervious to d-Limonene. There are two methods of fluorinating containers. The plastic can be blow-molded with fluorine gas or the pre-made containers can be treated with fluorine. Either method works for packaging d-Limonene.
Glass and Ceramic Containers
Due to the cost, weight, and fragility, glass or ceramic containers are rarely used for packaging d-Limonene. However, the d-Limonene will have no effect on glass or ceramic packaging. When using glass, make sure that any plastic caps or seals are compatible with d-Limonene.
Shelf Life & Storage Conditions
Under ideal conditions, the shelf life of d-Limonene, orange terpenes, orange oil, and most other citrus by-products is 18 months to two years. Improper storage and handling can lead to reduced shelf life.
Store in well ventilated area with proper sprinkler/fire deterrent system. Storage temperature should not exceed the flash point (110°F/43°C)for extended periods of time. Keep container closed with not in use. Air should be excluded from partially filled containers by displacing with nitrogen or carbon dioxide. Do not cut, drill, grind, or weld on or n ear this container; residual vapors may ignite.
It is recommended that all local storage safety precautions be followed. In Florida, d-Limonene is not considered a hazardous material when stored in a warehouse in drums. When shipped by air or ocean, d-Limonene is considered a hazardous material and must be labeled accordingly. If d-Limonene is stored in drums marked with hazardous labels, local regulatory agencies may consider d-Limonene hazardous.
Always wear the appropriate personal protective equipment when handling essential oils, especially safety glasses and gloves. The best material for gloves, aprons, and goggles for handling d-Limonene are nitrile gloves, although Viton and polyethylene film gloves will also work.
When transferring from drums or tankers into smaller containers, braided PVC tubing will hold up for a while, but will eventually become rigid. The newer materials using halogenated polymers or fluoromers will work best for this use. Braided PVC or Tygon tubing will hold up for a while.
For clean-up purposes when a NIOSH filter is needed, always use an organic cartridge.
Florida Chemical Company recommends the use of grounding clamps whenever transferring liquids.